Footnotes for “Rojava: An Alternative to Imperialism, Nationalism, and Islamism”

Here is the list of footnotes of my book “Rojava: An Alternative to Imperialism, Nationalism, and Islamism” (the pdf of which is available here https://ososabiouk.wordpress.com/2015/04/07/pdf-of-rojava-an-alternative-to-imperialism-nationalism-and-islamism-in-the-middle-east/ [a hard copy can be bought at http://www.lulu.com/shop/oso-sabio/rojava-an-alternative-to-imperialism-nationalism-and-islamism-in-the-middle-east/paperback/product-22094170.html?ppn=1])

  1. https://ososabiouk.wordpress.com/2014/08/23/gaza-a-capitalist-genocide-essay/
  2. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/imperialism
  3. https://libcom.org/library/national-formation-arab-region-critique-samir-amin-mohammad-jafar
  4. http://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/feb/01/islamic-science
  5. http://www.teachmideast.org/essays/28-history/42-timeline-of-the-middle-east-in-the-20th-century
  6. http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/10/17/a-secular-history-of-islam/
  7. http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/profilesmuhammed.html
  8. http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/10/17/a-secular-history-of-islam/
  9. http://isreview.org/issue/76/political-islam-marxist-analysis
  10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/6045182.stm
  11. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/default.aspx?pageid=438&n=the-8216libertarian-constitution8217-of-61-the-myth-and-the-facts-2010-05-26
  12. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/06/turkish-invasion-divided-cyprus-40-years-on-eyewitness-greek-cypriot-family
  13. http://roarmag.org/2014/08/pkk-kurdish-struggle-autonomy/
  14. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/15/egypt-revolution-death-toll-arab-network-human-rights_n_1519393.html
  15. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/16/egypt-nationalism-muslim-brotherhood-crackdown
  16. http://rt.com/usa/iran-coup-cia-operation-647/
  17. http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB435/
  18. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/sep/23/iran-iraq-war-anniversary
  19. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/02/2012215164958644116.html
  20. https://www.greenleft.org.au/node/32191
  21. http://dissidentvoice.org/2009/06/selling-iran-ahmadinejad-privatization-and-a-bus-diver-who-said-no/
  22. http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/10/17/neoliberal-economics-comes-to-iran/
  23. http://www.nbcnews.com/news/other/irans-president-rouhani-we-will-never-develop-nuclear-weapons-f4B11191585
  24. http://www.ibtimes.com/amid-new-attacks-iraqi-shiites-irans-rouhani-pledges-more-support-iraqi-military-fight-1708747
  25. https://ososabiouk.wordpress.com/2014/08/23/gaza-a-capitalist-genocide-essay/
  26. http://www.vox.com/2014/7/17/5902177/9-questions-about-the-israel-palestine-conflict-you-were-too
  27. https://ososabiouk.wordpress.com/2014/08/23/gaza-a-capitalist-genocide-essay/
  28. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/interview-with-sociologist-eva-illouz-about-gaza-and-israeli-society-a-984536.html
  29. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12024253
  30. http://www.globalresearch.ca/permanent-occupation-imperialism-in-afghanistan-past-and-present/5341442
  31. http://www.theguardian.com/news/2007/jul/24/guardianobituaries.afghanistan
  32. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/23/AR2007072301824.html
  33. http://www.globalresearch.ca/permanent-occupation-imperialism-in-afghanistan-past-and-present/5341442
  34. http://williamblum.org/essays/read/how-the-us-provoked-the-soviet-union-into-invading-afghanistan-and-starting
  35. http://williamblum.org/chapters/killing-hope/afghanistan
  36. http://icasualties.org/oef/
  37. http://costsofwar.org/article/afghan-civilians
  38. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/india-and-pakistan-win-independence
  39. http://www.counterpunch.org/2010/06/09/the-fate-of-kashmir/
  40. http://teeth.com.pk/blog/2007/12/08/pakistans-rich-list-of-2008
  41. http://gotest.pk/education/pakistan-education/top-10-richest-people-in-pakistan/
  42. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/029b3250-487a-11e4-ad19-00144feab7de.html#axzz3OBoZcK1i
  43. http://costsofwar.org/article/iraqi-civilians
  44. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-30695048
  45. http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21638122-another-font-global-mayhem-emergingnot-helped-regional-meddling-and-western?fsrc=rss|lea
  46. http://www.islamicpluralism.org/2226/the-boston-horrors-and-wahhabism-in-chechnya
  47. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13809501
  48. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-15336689
  49. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-16850706
  50. http://www.marxist.com/colonial-revolution-and-civil-war-in-south-yemen.htm
  51. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29319423
  52. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/08/world/violence-grows-in-yemen-as-al-qaeda-tries-to-fight-its-way-back.html?_r=0
  53. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14649284
  54. Most information here summarised from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14647211, http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/asia/kuwait/kwtimeln.htm and http://www.timelines.ws/countries/KUWAIT.HTML
  55. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14702609
  56. http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=61189
  57. http://www.dailysabah.com/mideast/2014/10/15/isis-threat-causes-rapprochement-between-saudi-arabia-and-qatar
  58. http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/qatar-and-isis-funding-the-u.s.-approach
  59. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14703998
  60. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14704414
  61. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/26/united-arab-emirates-bombing-raids-libyan-militias
  62. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14654150
  63. http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/oman/sultanate.htm
  64. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14654150
  65. http://islam.uga.edu/ibadis.html
  66. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/16/world/middleeast/16oman.html
  67. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14654150
  68. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/16/world/middleeast/16oman.html
  69. http://orientxxi.info/magazine/oman-says-no-to-saudi-arabia,0496
  70. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14540571
  71. http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/press-release/us-government-should-call-release-bahraini-political-prisoners
  72. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/40/058.html
  73. http://newint.org/features/2013/04/01/real-story-terrorist-attack-algerian-gas-plant/
  74. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14107720
  75. https://medium.com/war-is-boring/the-longest-minefield-in-the-world-isnt-where-you-think-it-is-9abd521cd770
  76. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14123260
  77. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/12/world/africa/moroccos-king-slow-to-deliver-on-pro-democracy-vows.html
  78. http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-state-sponsors-of-isis-saudi-arabia-qatar-turkey-why-are-they-no-subjected-to-sanctions/5403310
  79. https://libcom.org/library/national-formation-arab-region-critique-samir-amin-mohammad-jafar
  80. http://www.nationalismproject.org/articles/nikolas/ch1.htm
  81. https://www.msu.edu/user/hillrr/161lec16.htm
  82. http://www.nationalismproject.org/articles/nikolas/ch1.htm
  83. http://www.academia.edu/6095765/The_Al-Nahda_period_as_a_precursor_for_twentieth_century_Islamism
  84. http://al-hakawati.net/english/Arabpers/jurji-zaidan.asp
  85. http://www.internationaldemocracywatch.org/index.php/arab-league-
  86. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1908cromer.html
  87. http://isreview.org/issue/70/nasserism-collaboration
  88. https://www.opendemocracy.net/article/nassers_complex_legacy
  89. http://isreview.org/issue/70/nasserism-collaboration
  90. http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/suez-crisis
  91. http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/eisenhower-doctrine
  92. http://isreview.org/issue/70/nasserism-collaboration
  93. http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/11/28/nixon.papers/
  94. http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/.premium-1.546843
  95. http://isreview.org/issue/70/nasserism-collaboration
  96. http://www.litci.org/index.php/especiales/cuba-y-venezuela/item/2677-pasado-y-presente-del-nacionalismo-burgues#.VCr0uxaGcSE
  97. http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/07/22/blinded-by-israel-visionless-in-gaza/
  98. https://ososabiouk.wordpress.com/2014/08/23/gaza-a-capitalist-genocide-essay/
  99. http://www.academia.edu/1787409/Rise_and_Fall_of_Baathism
  100. http://www.e-ir.info/2013/08/02/nasserism-and-bathism-modern-contingent-confused-and-instrumental/
  101. Curtis, Michael ed. (1971). People and Politics in the Middle East: The Arab-Israeli Conflict-Its Background and the Prognosis for Peace. Transaction Publishers. P.139.
  102. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13610702
  103. Salem, Paul (1994). Bitter Legacy: Ideology and Politics in the Arab World. Syracuse University Press. P.68.
  104. Salem, Paul (1994) Ibid.
  105. Blamires, Cyprian (2006). World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia 1. ABC-CLIO. P.84.
  106. Maʻoz, Moshe (2005). Arab-Jewish Relations: From Conflict to Resolution?: Essays in Honour of Moshe Maʻ Sussex Academic Press. P.141.
  107. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ac0d54.html
  108. Karsh, Efraim and Rautsi, Inari (1991). Saddam Hussein: A Political Biography. Futura Publications. P.15.
  109. Sassoon, Joseph (2012). Saddam Hussein’s Ba’th Party: Inside an Authoritarian Regime (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. P.43
  110. http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/09/12/energy-geopolitics-and-the-u-s-mission-in-iraq-and-syria/
  111. Ben-Tzur, Avraham (1968). The Neo-Ba’th Party of Syria http://www.jstor.org/stable/259704
  112. Viorst, Milton (1995). Sandcastles: The Arabs in Search of the Modern World. Syracuse University Press. P.146.
  113. George, Alan (2003). Syria: Neither Bread nor Freedom. Zed Books. P.70.
  114. http://country-facts.findthebest.com/l/183/Syrian-Arab-Republic
  115. http://kushnirs.org/macroeconomics/gdp/gdp_syria.html#p2
  116. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14703995
  117. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-18582755
  118. http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/18502
  119. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-18582755
  120. http://country-facts.findthebest.com/l/183/Syrian-Arab-Republic
  121. http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/syria/economy
  122. http://www.made-in-syria.com/economy-in-syria.html
  123. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14703995
  124. http://countrystudies.us/syria/55.htm
  125. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-18582755
  126. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  127. http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/A_Report_on_Mesopotamia_by_T.E._Lawrence
  128. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  129. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/54.htm
  130. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  131. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/51/217.html
  132. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  133. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Iraq.html
  134. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/51/217.html
  135. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  136. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/54.htm
  137. http://www.middle-east-studies.net/archives/2238
  138. https://libcom.org/library/national-formation-arab-region-critique-samir-amin-mohammad-jafar
  139. https://www.globalpolicy.org/iraq-conflict-the-historical-background-/us-and-british-support-for-huss-regime.html
  140. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/51/217.html
  141. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/51/217.html
  142. http://www.muslimedia.com/archives/features98/saddam.htm
  143. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/51/217.html and http://globalresearch.ca/articles/SAN210A.html
  144. http://www.democracynow.org/blog/2006/12/14/ask_kissinger_about_pinochet_http_seattlepinwsourcecom_opinion_295792_amy14html
  145. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/51/217.html and http://globalresearch.ca/articles/SAN210A.html
  146. https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/169/36408.html
  147. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/revealed-how-the-west-set-saddam-on-the-bloody-road-to-power-1258618.html
  148. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  149. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/revealed-how-the-west-set-saddam-on-the-bloody-road-to-power-1258618.html
  150. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/77.htm
  151. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  152. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/54.htm
  153. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/77.htm
  154. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  155. http://origins.osu.edu/article/century-us-relations-iraq
  156. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  157. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2886733.stm
  158. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  159. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/54.htm
  160. http://origins.osu.edu/article/century-us-relations-iraq
  161. http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2004/03/iraq-m17.html
  162. http://origins.osu.edu/article/century-us-relations-iraq
  163. http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2004/03/iraq-m17.html
  164. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  165. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/78.htm
  166. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  167. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/78.htm
  168. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/113.htm
  169. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/78.htm
  170. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/114.htm
  171. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/79.htm
  172. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/78.htm
  173. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2886733.stm
  174. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/95.htm
  175. Niblock, Tim (1982). Iraq, the contemporary state. Croom Helm, Ltd. P.70.
  176. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/41.htm
  177. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/45.htm
  178. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/77.htm
  179. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  180. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/38.htm
  181. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  182. http://countrystudies.us/iraq/55.htm
  183. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3324053.stm
  184. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  185. http://www.islamopediaonline.org/country-profile/iraq/islam-and-education-system/rebuilding-iraq%E2%80%99s-education-system-and-addressing-fo?page=6
  186. http://www.beliefnet.com/Faiths/Islam/2003/04/Saddam-Plays-The-Faith-Card.aspx?p=1# and http://www.beliefnet.com/Faiths/Islam/2003/04/Saddam-Plays-The-Faith-Card.aspx?p=2
  187. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  188. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/02/iraq_events/html/oil_food.stm
  189. http://libcom.org/history/1900-2000-iraq-timeline
  190. https://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/beyond/counting-the-human-cost/4
  191. http://www.historyguy.com/no-fly_zone_war.html#.VL2-NC68480
  192. http://www.newrepublic.com/article/world/magazine/107238/baathism-obituary
  193. http://globalresearch.ca/articles/COL303C.html
  194. http://www.memri.org/about-memri.html
  195. http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/897.htm
  196. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/03/201331055338463426.html
  197. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/politics/2013/01/de-baathification-10-years.html#
  198. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/03/201331055338463426.html
  199. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/08/21/the_re_baathification_of_iraq
  200. http://gulfartguide.com/essay/nasserism-baathism-and-political-islam/
  201. http://www.globalresearch.ca/us-exploits-kurdish-elements-against-iran/3940
  202. http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-kurdish-national-question/21608
  203. http://www.uruknet.info/?p=22749, http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2007/01/360626.html, and http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-great-kurdistan-threat/2320
  204. http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-kurdish-national-question/21608
  205. dispatchesfromtheedgeblog.wordpress.com and http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/08/29/ascent-of-the-kurds/
  206. http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-kurdish-national-question/21608
  207. http://www.uruknet.info/?p=22749, http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2007/01/360626.html, and http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-great-kurdistan-threat/2320
  208. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/winter98_99/art07.html
  209. http://www.uruknet.info/?p=22749, http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2007/01/360626.html, and http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-great-kurdistan-threat/2320
  210. dispatchesfromtheedgeblog.wordpress.com and http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/08/29/ascent-of-the-kurds/
  211. http://www.sismec.org/2014/09/08/oil-for-sovereignty-america-iraq-and-kurdistan/
  212. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saddam/kurds/cron.html
  213. http://www.sismec.org/2014/09/08/oil-for-sovereignty-america-iraq-and-kurdistan/
  214. http://www.ctvnews.ca/business/iraq-reaches-oil-deal-with-kurdish-region-1.2128526
  215. http://www.kurdmedia.com/article.aspx?id=9748
  216. http://kurdistantribune.com/2014/islamic-state-sengal-how-pkk-ypg-taught-barzani-independence-really-means/
  217. http://www.meforum.org/3838/israel-kurds
  218. http://www.vox.com/2014/8/12/5991425/kurds-iraq-kurdistan-peshmerga
  219. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/08/07/the-long-winding-history-of-american-dealings-with-iraqs-kurds/
  220. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/LB20Ak02.html
  221. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/08/07/the-long-winding-history-of-american-dealings-with-iraqs-kurds/
  222. http://www.counterpunch.org/2008/05/23/the-kurds-and-american-neo-imperialism/ and http://www.kamranmatin.net
  223. http://www.globalresearch.ca/no-friends-but-the-mountains-washington-seeks-to-ensnare-kurds/5346859?print=1
  224. http://www.vox.com/2014/8/12/5991425/kurds-iraq-kurdistan-peshmerga
  225. http://www.counterpunch.org/2008/05/23/the-kurds-and-american-neo-imperialism/ and http://www.kamranmatin.net
  226. http://www.vox.com/2014/8/12/5991425/kurds-iraq-kurdistan-peshmerga
  227. http://www.counterpunch.org/2008/05/23/the-kurds-and-american-neo-imperialism/ and http://www.kamranmatin.net
  228. dispatchesfromtheedgeblog.wordpress.com and http://www.counterpunch.org/2013/08/29/ascent-of-the-kurds/
  229. http://web.stanford.edu/group/SHR/5-1/text/collier.html
  230. https://www.marxists.org/glossary/terms/b/o.htm
  231. http://web.stanford.edu/group/SHR/5-1/text/collier.html
  232. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/29/sharia-law-usa-states-ban_n_3660813.html
  233. http://web.stanford.edu/group/SHR/5-1/text/collier.html
  234. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alastair-crooke/isis-wahhabism-saudi-arabia_b_5717157.html?utm_hp_ref=tw
  235. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alastair-crooke/isis-aim-saudi-arabia_b_5748744.html
  236. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alastair-crooke/isis-wahhabism-saudi-arabia_b_5717157.html?utm_hp_ref=tw
  237. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/family.html
  238. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saudi/analyses/wahhabism.html
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About Oso Sabio

Independent author and poet writing about the Rojava Revolution, the autonomous Zapatista communities in Chiapas, and other examples of libertarian socialist and anti-capitalist resistance. Catch me on Twitter at @ososabiouk. Also known as Ed Sykes and Marcos Villa.
This entry was posted in Anarchism, Arab Spring, Arab World, Autonomy, Footnotes, Freedom, Imperialism, Iran, Iraq, Islamism, justice, Kurdish Spring, Kurdistan, Libertarian Communism, Libertarian Socialism, Nationalism, Peace, Rojava, Secularism, Syria, Turkey and tagged , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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